the coordination of arm movements: an experimentally confirmed mathematical model
Author(s): Tamar Flash, Neville Hogans
Venue: Journal of Neuroscience
Year Published: 1985
Keywords: optimal control, cognitive sciences, dynamical systems
Expert Opinion: This paper is part of a set of papers that outlines important points about synergy formation in neuroscience and robotics along a fil-rouge during the last 40 years: a) the coordination of multiple joints in goal directed movement, b) the characterization of "biological motion‚", c) the equilibrium point hypothesis, d) the role of force fields for motor coordination, e) the extension of the equilibrium point hypothesis from real (overt) movements to covert (real) movements, f) the characterization of synergy formation as the simulation of an internal body model. In particular, this paper explained the bell-shape of the speed profile in human arm reaching movements in terms of optimal control. The observation had been first made in Morasso P (1981) Spatial control of arm movements. Experimental Brain Research.