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hindsight experience replay

Author(s): Marcin Andrychowicz, Filip Wolski, Alex Ray, Jonas Schneider, Rachel Fong, Peter Welinder, Bob McGrew, Josh Tobin, Pieter Abbeel, Wojciech Zaremba
Venue: Neural Information Processing Systems Conference (NeurIPS)
Year Published: 2018
Keywords: manipulation, humanoid robotics, reinforcement learning, neural networks
Expert Opinion: HER addresses the issue of sample inefficiency in DRL, especially for those problems with sparse and binary reward functions. It has become one of the most effective algorithms for learning problems with multiple goals which have the potential to solve many challenging manipulation tasks. The idea of "EVERY experience is a good experience for SOME task" is a powerful insight that succinctly reflects how we teach our children to be lifelong learners. We should teach our robots the same way.

maximum entropy inverse reinforcement learning

Author(s): Brian D. Ziebart, Andrew Maas, J.Andrew Bagnell, and Anind K. Dey
Venue: AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Year Published: 2008
Keywords: probabilistic models, learning from demonstration, reinforcement learning
Expert Opinion: This work is one of the first to connect probabilistic inference with robot policy learning. Maximum Entropy Inverse Reinforcement Learning poses the classical Inverse Reinforcement Learning problem, well-studied for several years before this work, as maximizing the likelihood of observing a state distributing given a noisily optimal agent w.r.t an unknown reward function. The inference method, model, and general principles not only inspired future IRL works (such as RelEnt-IRL, GP-IRL, and Guided Cost Learning), they also have been applied in Human Robot Interaction and general policy search algorithms.

end-to-end training of deep visuomotor policies

Author(s): Sergey Levine, Chelsea Finn, Trevor Darrell, Pieter Abbeel
Venue: Journal of Machine Learning Research
Year Published: 2016
Keywords: manipulation, probabilistic models, planning, locomotion, learning from demonstration, reinforcement learning, neural networks, visual perception
Expert Opinion: This is an excellent example of reinforcement learning applied to closed-loop visual control for challenging robotics tasks and a good example of the application of deep-learning to real-world robotics.

probabilistic robotics

Author(s): Sebastian Thrun, Wolfram Burgard, Dieter Fox
Venue: Book
Year Published: 2005
Keywords: probabilistic models
Expert Opinion: Probabilistic Robotics is a tour de force, replete with material for students and practitioners alike.

apprenticeship learning via inverse reinforcement learning

Author(s): Pieter Abbeel, Andrew Y. Ng
Venue: International Conference on Machine Learning
Year Published: 2004
Keywords: reinforcement learning, learning from demonstration
Expert Opinion: Provided a convincing demonstration of the usefulness of inverse reinforcement learning

supersizing self-supervision: learning to grasp from 50k tries and 700 robot hours

Author(s): Lerrel Pinto, Abhinav Gupta
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2015
Keywords: manipulation, reinforcement learning, neural networks
Expert Opinion: This paper demonstrated that it's possible to have a robot interact in a self-supervised way with the environment in order to learn useful tasks, like grasping. By running a robot for a long period of time, it's possible to collect enough data to train policies using simple algorithms. This lead the way for a lot of follow up work from Google and others, and is likely an area where we'll see a lot of interest in the future.

movement imitation with nonlinear dynamical systems in humanoid robots

Author(s): Auke Jan Ijspeert, Jun Nakanishi, Stefan Schaal
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2002
Keywords: probabilistic models, nonlinear systems, dynamical systems, learning from demonstration, humanoid robotics
Expert Opinion: First work that proproses practical movement primitive representation for robotics. Very concise paper: shows how much can be packed into 6 pages.

alvinn: an autonomous land vehicle in a neural network

Author(s): Dean A. Pomerleau
Venue: MITP
Year Published: 1989
Keywords: mobile robots, learning from demonstration, neural networks
Expert Opinion: This was probably the first real learning-based controller for an autonomous vehicle. It pioneered techniques such as data-augmentation to handle the problem of reaching states on which it wasn't trained.

policy gradient reinforcement learning for fast quadrupedal locomotion

Author(s): Nate Kohl, Peter Stone
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2004
Keywords: reinforcement learning, policy gradients, locomotion, legged robots
Expert Opinion: The paper is one of the first impressive applications of policy gradient algorithms on real robots. The policy gradient algorithm is rather simple, but is able to optimize the gait of the AIBO robot efficiently.

dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors

Author(s): Auke Jan Ijspeert, Jun Nakanishi, Heiko Hoffmann, Peter Pastor, Stefan Schaal
Venue: Neural Computation (Volume 25, Issue 2)
Year Published: 2013
Keywords: planning, learning from demonstration, dynamical systems, nonlinear systems
Expert Opinion: DMPs proved to be a very useful representation for robot learning. The paper gives the clearest presentation ten years after they were invented

autonomous helicopter aerobatics through apprenticeship learning

Author(s): Pieter Abbeel, Adam Coates and Andrew Y. Ng
Venue: International Journal of Robotics Research
Year Published: 2010
Keywords: learning from demonstration, optimal control, dynamical systems
Expert Opinion: This paper presents a beautiful and compelling demonstration of the strength of learning dynamical models and using optimal control to learn complex tasks on intrinsically unstable systems even if the learned models rather crude and the optimal controllers are based on linearization, both strong approximations of reality. Furthermore, it addresses the problem of learning from demonstrations and improving from such demonstrations to beat human performance. To the best of my knowledge, on of the first paper demonstrating the use of learning by demonstration, model learning and optimal control together to achieve acrobatic tasks.

learning and generalization of motor skills by learning from demonstration

Author(s): Peter Pastor, Heiko Hoffmann, Tamim Asfour, and Stefan Schaal
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2009
Keywords: planning, learning from demonstration
Expert Opinion: DMPs (Dynamic Movement Primitives) are a good representation for learning robot movements from demonstration, as well as for doing reinforcement learning based on demonstrations. This paper explains a variant of the original DMP formulation that makes them stable when generalizing movements to accommodate new goals, or obstacles in the robot's path. It then shows how the new DMPs can be used for one-shot learning of tasks such as pick-and-place operations or water serving. More robust than just a trajectory, and less complex than learning with many trials, this is a nice tool to have in your robot learning toolkit.

pilco: a model-based and data-efficient approach to policy search

Author(s): Marc Peter Deisenroth, Carl Edward Rasmussen
Venue: International Conference of Machine Learning
Year Published: 2011
Keywords: state estimation, reinforcement learning, probabilistic models, gaussians, dynamical systems, visual perception, policy gradients
Expert Opinion: Demonstrates a way to efficiency learn a task through model-based reinforcement learning.

a reduction of imitation learning and structured prediction to no-regret online learning

Author(s): Stephane Ross, Geoffrey J. Gordon, J. Andrew Bagnell
Venue: 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics
Year Published: 2011
Keywords: neural networks, learning from demonstration, dynamical systems
Expert Opinion: This paper provides the first formal analysis of the (dynamic) covariate shift problem, where the suboptimal execution behavior of a policy drives the system to different states than those observed during training. While the general problem itself was well-known at the time ("Behavioral Cloning: A Correction" Michie 1995; Alvinn: "An autonomous land vehicle in a neural network" Pomerleau 1989), a disciplined analysis was lacking in the community. Ross et al. use a regret analysis to analyze and theoretically control the effects of dynamic covariate shift. The theory and algorithmic tools proposed in this work are still an active area of research today.

from skills to symbols: learning symbolic representations for abstract high-level planning

Author(s): George Konidaris, Leslie Pack Kaelbling, Tomas Lozano-Perez
Venue: Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
Year Published: 2018
Keywords: probabilistic models, planning
Expert Opinion: There exists a representational gap between the continuous sensorimotor world of a robot and the discrete symbols used by advanced AI planning methods. Many existing studies typically assume the existence of precoded planning symbols, and investigate how to learn the relations between these pre-coded symbols and continuous world of the robot. Few others argue that symbols should be formed in relation to the experience of agents through their sensorimotor experience. This paper presents a structured approach, which is built on Markov-decision process formalism, to discover symbolic abstract representations from low-level high-dimensional continuous sensorimotor experience. The learned symbols and rules can automatically and effectively expressed in PDDL, a canonical high-level planning domain language, enabling high-level planning with traditional off-the-shelf AI planners.

a survey on policy search for robotics

Author(s): Marc Peter Deisenroth, Gerhard Neumann, Jan Peters
Venue: Book
Year Published: 2013
Keywords: survey, reinforcement learning
Expert Opinion: For learning optimal robot behavior, reinforcement learning is an essential tool. Whereas the standard textbook by Sutton & Barto mainly covers value-function based methods, this survey covers policy-based method that are very popular in robotics application, with a specific focus on a robotics context.

probabilistic movement primitives

Author(s): Alexandros Paraschos, Christian Daniel, Jan Peters, and Gerhard Neumann
Venue: Neural Information Processing Systems Conference (NeurIPS)
Year Published: 2013
Keywords: manipulation, probabilistic models, gaussians, planning, learning from demonstration
Expert Opinion: This work proposes a probabilistic movement primitive representation that can be trained through least squares regression from demonstrations. The most important feature of this model is its ability to model coupled systems. Thus, through exploiting the learned covariance between limbs or other dimensions whole body motion can be completed and predicted. Also the approach provides a closed form solution of optimal feedback controller in each time step assuming local Gaussian models.

reinforcement learning: an introduction

Author(s): Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Barto
Venue: Book
Year Published: 2018
Keywords: mobile robots, reinforcement learning, unsupervised learning, optimal control, genetic algorithms
Expert Opinion: Somewhat repeating myself from the last suggestion: for learning robot behavior, reinforcement learning is an essential tool. While Sutton & Barto do not focus specifically on the case of robotics, their book is a very accessible text that nevertheless manages to cover many aspects, techniques, and challenges in reinforcement learning.

robotic grasping of novel objects using vision

Author(s): Ashutosh Saxena, Justin Driemeyer, Andrew Y. Ng
Venue: International Journal of Robotics Research
Year Published: 2008
Keywords: neural networks, dynamical systems, visual perception, learning from demonstration, manipulation, planning
Expert Opinion: This paper lead a generation of PhD students to reimagine how grasping, and manipulation more generally, could be approached as a machine learning problem. Treating the grasp learning problem as a supervised learning problem without explicit human demonstrations or reinforcement learning, Saxena and colleagues' work stood as an example of how manipulation could be approached from a perceptual angle. A decade before deep learning made a splash in robotics, this work showed how robots could be trained to manipulate previously unseen objects without a need for complete 3D or dynamics models. While the learning techniques and features may have changed, the general formulation still stands as the initial approach many researchers take when implementing a grasp planning algorithm.

intrinsic motivation systems for autonomous mental development

Author(s): Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Frederic Kaplan, and Verena V. Hafner
Venue: IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation (Volume 11, Issue 2)
Year Published: 2007
Keywords: reinforcement learning, evolution, neural networks
Expert Opinion: This paper proposes exploration algorithms based on the idea of intrinsic motivations, in particular motivations to explore in order to maximise the learning progress of a robot. This is a prominent example of the work of the Developmental Robotics community that ties link between developmental psychology, neurosciences and concrete robotics implementation and shows that exploring with this approach to learn to predict action consequences (forward models) results in behavior that is organized and shows similarity with human behavior.

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