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policy gradient reinforcement learning for fast quadrupedal locomotion

Author(s): Nate Kohl, Peter Stone
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2004
Keywords: reinforcement learning, policy gradients, locomotion, legged robots
Expert Opinion: The paper is one of the first impressive applications of policy gradient algorithms on real robots. The policy gradient algorithm is rather simple, but is able to optimize the gait of the AIBO robot efficiently.

a reduction of imitation learning and structured prediction to no-regret online learning

Author(s): Stephane Ross, Geoffrey J. Gordon, J. Andrew Bagnell
Venue: 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics
Year Published: 2011
Keywords: neural networks, learning from demonstration, dynamical systems
Expert Opinion: Dagger points to a problem that keeps popping up in everyone's research. Every robot learning person should know about it.

robotic grasping of novel objects using vision

Author(s): Ashutosh Saxena, Justin Driemeyer, Andrew Y. Ng
Venue: International Journal of Robotics Research
Year Published: 2008
Keywords: neural networks, dynamical systems, visual perception, learning from demonstration, manipulation, planning
Expert Opinion: One of the first papers using general visual features for grasping

learning and generalization of motor skills by learning from demonstration

Author(s): Peter Pastor, Heiko Hoffmann, Tamim Asfour, and Stefan Schaal
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2009
Keywords: planning, learning from demonstration
Expert Opinion: DMPs (Dynamic Movement Primitives) are a good representation for learning robot movements from demonstration, as well as for doing reinforcement learning based on demonstrations. This paper explains a variant of the original DMP formulation that makes them stable when generalizing movements to accommodate new goals, or obstacles in the robot's path. It then shows how the new DMPs can be used for one-shot learning of tasks such as pick-and-place operations or water serving. More robust than just a trajectory, and less complex than learning with many trials, this is a nice tool to have in your robot learning toolkit.

maximum entropy inverse reinforcement learning

Author(s): Brian D. Ziebart, Andrew Maas, J.Andrew Bagnell, and Anind K. Dey
Venue: AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Year Published: 2008
Keywords: probabilistic models, learning from demonstration, reinforcement learning
Expert Opinion: This is a seminal paper for IRL. It has not only become a standard way to think about IRL, but the observation model for a demonstration given the reward has propagated to many other related areas, like goal inference, human prediction, etc.

probabilistic movement primitives

Author(s): Alexandros Paraschos, Christian Daniel, Jan Peters, and Gerhard Neumann
Venue: Neural Information Processing Systems Conference (NeurIPS)
Year Published: 2013
Keywords: manipulation, probabilistic models, gaussians, planning, learning from demonstration
Expert Opinion: This and the following papers using ProMPs, because they provided a very nice formulation for representing probabilistic movement primitives. ProMPs have many advantages and I found them better than classical DMPs in many robotics applications, from gestures to whole-body manipulations.

alvinn: an autonomous land vehicle in a neural network

Author(s): Dean A. Pomerleau
Venue: MITP
Year Published: 1989
Keywords: mobile robots, learning from demonstration, neural networks
Expert Opinion: On the theoretical side, the first paper to recognize covariate shift in imitation learning and provide a simple data-augmentation style strategy to improve it. On the implementation side, a real self-driving first that led to "No Hands Across America".

end-to-end training of deep visuomotor policies

Author(s): Sergey Levine, Chelsea Finn, Trevor Darrell, Pieter Abbeel
Venue: Journal of Machine Learning Research
Year Published: 2016
Keywords: manipulation, probabilistic models, planning, locomotion, learning from demonstration, reinforcement learning, neural networks, visual perception
Expert Opinion: The first convincing application of deep learning in robotics control

a survey on policy search for robotics

Author(s): Marc Peter Deisenroth, Gerhard Neumann, Jan Peters
Venue: Book
Year Published: 2013
Keywords: survey, reinforcement learning
Expert Opinion: For learning optimal robot behavior, reinforcement learning is an essential tool. Whereas the standard textbook by Sutton & Barto mainly covers value-function based methods, this survey covers policy-based method that are very popular in robotics application, with a specific focus on a robotics context.

supersizing self-supervision: learning to grasp from 50k tries and 700 robot hours

Author(s): Lerrel Pinto, Abhinav Gupta
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2015
Keywords: manipulation, reinforcement learning, neural networks
Expert Opinion: Pinto et al., were the first paper to exploit deep learning techniques to process large amounts of data collected by a robot running 24x7 for significantly improving the grasping accuracy without making any object specific assumptions or requiring 3D models of objects. This paper inspired several works in using large scale data to learn intuitive physics, manipulation of deformable objects and also impressive grasping works such as Google's arm farm and DexNet.

intrinsic motivation systems for autonomous mental development

Author(s): Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Frederic Kaplan, and Verena V. Hafner
Venue: IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation (Volume 11, Issue 2)
Year Published: 2007
Keywords: reinforcement learning, evolution, neural networks
Expert Opinion: This article describes some of the first successful experiments about "curious robots" and intrinsic motivation. It is one of the foundational articles in the "developmental robotics" field and inspired hundreds of papers about intrinsic motivation in reinforcement learning.

reinforcement learning: an introduction

Author(s): Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Barto
Venue: Book
Year Published: 2018
Keywords: mobile robots, reinforcement learning, unsupervised learning, optimal control, genetic algorithms
Expert Opinion: Great introductory text book to the underpinnings of of a lot of the modern approaches in ML/RL for robotics.

movement imitation with nonlinear dynamical systems in humanoid robots

Author(s): Auke Jan Ijspeert, Jun Nakanishi, Stefan Schaal
Venue: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)
Year Published: 2002
Keywords: probabilistic models, nonlinear systems, dynamical systems, learning from demonstration, humanoid robotics
Expert Opinion: This paper introduced Dynamic Motor Primitives (DMPs) - a very prominent representation for robot motion used in many learning approaches. While originally introduced as an imitation learning approach, DMPs have gone on to become central to many reinforcement learning papers. Many modern approaches that end with the word "primitive" are descendants of this work, including Probabilistic Motion Primitives (ProMPs), or Interaction Primitives.

from skills to symbols: learning symbolic representations for abstract high-level planning

Author(s): George Konidaris, Leslie Pack Kaelbling, Tomas Lozano-Perez
Venue: Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
Year Published: 2018
Keywords: probabilistic models, planning
Expert Opinion: As we get better at low-level robotic control, the community will need to start thinking more about longer-horizon problems and how to smoothly flow between reasoning at different levels of abstraction. This paper presents a theoretically-ground formal treatment of the problem, proves some nice stuff about what constitutes necessary and sufficient symbols for various types of planning, and shows some nice demos on a real robot. It is by far the best analysis of hierarchical learning / planning that I know of and provides a much-needed theoretical foundation for moving this area of research forward.

probabilistic robotics

Author(s): Sebastian Thrun, Wolfram Burgard, Dieter Fox
Venue: Book
Year Published: 2005
Keywords: probabilistic models
Expert Opinion: It laid out basis for robotics in uncertain real world.

dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors

Author(s): Auke Jan Ijspeert, Jun Nakanishi, Heiko Hoffmann, Peter Pastor, Stefan Schaal
Venue: Neural Computation (Volume 25, Issue 2)
Year Published: 2013
Keywords: planning, learning from demonstration, dynamical systems, nonlinear systems
Expert Opinion: Foundation for motion planning using iterative learning methods

pilco: a model-based and data-efficient approach to policy search

Author(s): Marc Peter Deisenroth, Carl Edward Rasmussen
Venue: International Conference of Machine Learning
Year Published: 2011
Keywords: state estimation, reinforcement learning, probabilistic models, gaussians, dynamical systems, visual perception, policy gradients
Expert Opinion: This paper showed in an impressive way how to leverage modern probabilistic methods and model-based reinforcement learning to enable fast policy search. It has become THE reference modeling and inference in nondeterministic tasks. The authors use analytical gradients for efficient policy updates, thereby eschewing the typical problems related to sampling methods. The result is an approach that can learn the cart-pole swing up on a real device in about 20 seconds. If you are doing anything related to reinforcement learning with probabilistic methods, this is a must-read.

hindsight experience replay

Author(s): Marcin Andrychowicz, Filip Wolski, Alex Ray, Jonas Schneider, Rachel Fong, Peter Welinder, Bob McGrew, Josh Tobin, Pieter Abbeel, Wojciech Zaremba
Venue: Neural Information Processing Systems Conference (NeurIPS)
Year Published: 2018
Keywords: manipulation, humanoid robotics, reinforcement learning, neural networks
Expert Opinion: HER addresses the issue of sample inefficiency in DRL, especially for those problems with sparse and binary reward functions. It has become one of the most effective algorithms for learning problems with multiple goals which have the potential to solve many challenging manipulation tasks. The idea of "EVERY experience is a good experience for SOME task" is a powerful insight that succinctly reflects how we teach our children to be lifelong learners. We should teach our robots the same way.

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